Tuesday, December 11, 2007

It's finished!!!!

The pouch measures 10x10cm. The tassels are about 5 cm long, each with a turk's head knot. It is embroidered with silk on a linen ground and lined with silk fabric. The seams are finished with loopbraiding and the string is made with fingerloopbraiding. On the back (not shown in the photo's here) a coat of arms is worked into the embroidery pattern. You can see the coat of arms here.

In the mean time I have someone making a square embroidery frame, based on period artwork. I can't wait to finish my other embroidery project on it!

Monday, November 05, 2007

Recommended reading: Renate Kroos

Kroos, R. (1970), Niedersachsische Bildstickereien des Mittelaters, Berlin: Deutscher Verlag fur Kunstwissenschaft

This book is the extended version of Renate Kroos' phd tesis on German medieval embroidery (more specifically, from Niedersachsen) from 1958.

I love it because the pictures are so incredibly detailed. Here are some "randomly" selected pictures of linen and silk embroidery from the second half of the 14th century

This is one of my favourites. The combination of different stitches and materials is fascinating. The crown of the lady saint (I don't know who) is done in gold thread, the rest of the embroidery in white liuen and coloured silks.

This picture clearly shows how the deers are embroidered. I tried to use the same technique for the dragons that are in the Feldbach tablecloth (see blog banner):

I'm still trying to find out how to make a border in interlacing stitch. This picture is the fifth example of this type of border in whitework that I know of, so it was probably quite popular:

And last but not least, I like pictures were you can see the original drawing:

Tuesday, October 16, 2007

Interesting blog and flickr account

Thanks to Laren for linking to this blog about the medieval and renaissance expositions in the V&A:


Here is the flickr account:


He just posted some nice embroidery pictures!

Tuesday, October 09, 2007

Recommended reading

I'm so busy with the house, that I haven't got energy left for embroidery (too bad!)

But I did found an interesting paper that I wanted to show you:

Young. B. (1970), Needlework by nuns: a medieval religious embroidery, The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, February 1970, pp262-277

It's in the Utrecht University Library, and copies are also available via amazon or abebooks.

The paper presents a detailed description of a late 14th century German wallhanging embroidered in silk and linen, for a picture, click here

Young describes the socio-historical context, compares the wallhanging with other contemporary works, explains its iconography and even gives some technical details. I've only had a quick glance at the paper, so I can't give specific details yet.

A detail that suprised me, is that the faces and other details are actually painted on the embroidery! I think that's funny!

Here are some close ups of the journal's cover:

Saturday, October 06, 2007

A new life for my silk band.

I finally finished the tablet-weaving project I started last January. It has been sitting in my living room for almost a year, totally neglected and barely touched, until I decided it was time to change this sad situation last Wednesday.

The band is about 1.50 m long and 1 cm wide. It is made using 64 threads, 16 hand cut cardboard cards and 1200 Denier DeVere Yarns silk. I tied the threads between to fixed points attached to the ends of the windowpane.

I learned that regular tension and using a beater are very important to end up with a pretty and evenly woven band. Also I didn't like the cardboard cards, since after a while the corners of the cardboard squares split and your yarn gets tangled up with the cardboard. I'm also considering buying some kind of loom before starting my next project.

With this band I'll make a pair of garters to match my medieval outfit. I still have to find some nice 14th century replica buckles to go with them.

Saturday, August 25, 2007

Progress on the purse

Still need to finish a small piece that needs to be sewn closed with the decorative stitch, and make the fingerloop braids, and then ... it's done!

Monday, August 06, 2007


This weekend, I visited the Deventer Boekenmarkt, Europe's largest open air second-hand book fair. I found some very interesting (and very cheesy!) seventies books on macrame. How to knot your own knight in shining armour using macrame, yeah :-)

Anyway, I wanted to show you this page, taken from the same book. Seventies books might be cheesy, but they are also packed with technical details that you don't find in modern books. I think this book shows a technique that might have been used to make knots to embellish 14th century purses.

Click here for a picture of the type of knots I'm talking about:


These knots were made with silk gimp or gold thread, using 4-8 paralel strands of thread and working over a core of e.g. wood.

This is a tutorial for making "de knoop voor het keesje" ( I don't know why they call it like that :-). Click on the picture to enlarge. The pencil points at step 1 and I think the pictures don't need a translation. According to the Dutch text, you have to put some kind of "core" in the knot to mould it into shape.

This really looks like the type of knots from the picture above. I think this technique works better for making knots with more than 3 parallel strands of thread than this technique, but I haven't tried it yet... My problem with the latter technique, when I try to use more than 3 threads, is that I can't keep the threads parallel and that they start to cross each other. I think this technique doesn't have that problem.

Friday, July 13, 2007

Things finished

Long time no see!

My exams are finished.
I got an outstanding mark on my paper on Late Medieval local Flemish pottery (which made my so very happy!)
I have been working on an article.
And dived into researching late medieval sleeve types.

I also got these laces back from the friend who added points to them:

Wednesday, June 13, 2007

Embroidery design and book illuminations

The Feldbach tablecloth (click here and scroll down for a picture) amazes and puzzles me for a number of reasons. One of those is the complex yet funny embroidery design and how this could be transferred onto the linen fabric.

According to Schuette and Muller-Christensen (Das stickereiwerk, 1963, p. 19), the tablecloth itself was embroidered by either nuns, merchant's wives or wives of local city governors. The embroidery design was done by professional painters. And my big questions are: How did they do that and how am I going to repeat that?

Cennino Cennini's book Il libro dell' arte is a late 14th century painters manual which describes how a painter can work an embroidery design onto the fabric. And he makes it sound so easy! These citations are taken from this website, which features the whole book.

Step 1: Stretch the fabric onto a frame

CLXII A Section Dealing with Work on Cloth: First, Painting and Gilding.[194]
Now let us speak about how to work on cloth, that is, on linen or on silk.[195] And you will adopt this method for cloth: in the first place, stretch it taut on a frame, and begin by nailing down the lines of the seems. Then go around and around with tacks, to get it stretched out evenly and systematically, so that it all has every thread perfectly arranged.

Step 2: Start working

CLXIV How to Draw for Embroiderers.[198]
Again, you sometimes have to supply embroiderers with designs of various sorts. And, for this, get these masters to put cloth or fine silk on stretchers for you, good and taut. And if it is white cloth, take your regular charcoals, and draw whatever you please. Then take your pen and your pure ink, and reinforce it, just as you do on panel with a brush. Then sweep off your charcoal. Then take a sponge, well washed and[199] squeezed out in water. Then rub the cloth with it, on the reverse, where it has not been drawn on; and go on working the sponge until the cloth is damp as far as the figure extends. Then take a small, rather blunt, minever brush; dip it in the ink; and after squeezing it out well you begin to shade with it in the darkest places, coming back and softening gradually. You will find that there will not be any cloth so coarse but that, by this method, you will get your shadows so soft that it will seem to you miraculous.[200] And if the cloth [p. 105] gets dry before you have finished shading, go back with the sponge and wet it again as usual. And let this suffice you for work on cloth.

And that's it! I think I'm going to cheat a bit with that, because I just can't draw...:-)

It's interesting to see the parallels between embroidery designs and book illuminations in the 14th century. The intertwined dragons of the tablecloth have been compared to similar book illuminations. Anne Warner writes about that in this paper. The goat-like creatures with the long hornes are a bit like these creatures in a French manuscript (see also previous post).

Wednesday, May 02, 2007

How to make gimp, Part I

The only things you will need are: a pair of scissors, a reel of fine 120 denier floss (available at DevereYarns, see sidebar for a link to their website), regular silk ebmroidery yarn or linnen yarn to use as core threads, preferably in the same colour* as the 120 denier floss. AND: A LOT OF PATIENCE!

*I don't know wether they used coloured or white cores in medieval times, but the advantage of using the same coolour is that it doesn't really show if you forget to cover a little piece of the core with silk and also when you tie a Turk's Head Knot with it, often a bit of the core might become visible. this effect is reduced by using a core of a similar colour.

Cut several pieces of yarn of the same length. In this example I used a length of ca. 50 cm and cut five pieces of yarn.

When you twist the yarns you will get an idea of the final thickness of your gimp, though the gimps tends to be a even a tiny bit finer because the threads will be compressed by wrapping the silk around.

Tie the (five) yarns together with the silk thread in a small knot.

Take the two ends of the linnen yarn in your two hands, and put the reel of thread between your upper legs, or find another creative way to make sure the reel can't unroll.

The yarns should form a nice T-shape. Make sure to keep the tension right.
Now you can start winding. I did the winding in my direction, but you can also wind away from your body, whatever suits you best. The advantage of this method is that you have both your hands available to control the winding, and to make sure you don't leave any spots of the core thread visible.

After about an hour of winding and winding this should be your result. My gimp is about 1 mm in diameter.

Tuesday, May 01, 2007

And more work in progress...

This is where I stopped last October:

This is where I took it today:

Tassels: How to make Turk's Head Knots

To make one Turk's Head Knot for a small sized tassel (ca. 5-7 cm long), you will need about 50 cm of gimp thread.

The gimp in the picture is made by myself. It took me about 2 hours to create one metre of gimp. I hope to post a seperate tutorial for making gimp sometime soon.
You will need just a regular tassel.
Make a Turk's Head Knot. I always find this tutorial very easy to work with.

I just make the knot on my fingers like in the tutorial and adjust the size later when I put it on the tassel. When the knot fits tighlty around the head of the tassel cut off the ends of the gimp, and pull inside.
The finished tassel!

Monday, April 30, 2007

13th century - mid 14th century embroidered tassels

I was working on a few tassels, and I thought that I might as wel write another tutorial about it:

I think most (late) 14th century tassels were adorned with a turkish head knot. However, I saw some examples of tassels embroidered with gold thread too. This type of tassels were used in the 13th and 14th century, probably until ca 1350. You can find pictures of these type of tassels in:

  • Hoving, T., Husband, T., Hayward, J. (1975), The secular spirit: Life and art at the end of the Middle Ages: New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art v
  • Schneider, J. (1975), Textilien. Catalog der Sammlung des Schweizerischen Landesmuseums Zürich, Zürich: Verlag Berichthaus
  • Wilckens von, L. (1991), Die textilen Künste. Von der Spätantike bis um 1500, München, Verlag CH Beck

For online pictures, click here (insert LM 1825 a, LM 1825 b), here or here.

This is how I make these tassels. I used Aurora 2 ply silk for the tassels and Tanja Berlin's Japanese gold K4 (beautiful gilded silver thread!)

Make a basic silk tassel and a roll of linen

Wrap the linen around the tassel head

Wrap a silk thread around the linen core and attach with tiny stitches. And have a lot of patience! For me, this feels more like sculpure than embroidery :-)

Wrap the gold thread around the tassel head and attachit with tiny silk stitches.

The finished tassel

Sunday, April 29, 2007

Finishing the seams of 14th/15th century pouches

{ Edit (by Isis): I thought I'd add a link here to an older (Dutch) post I did on the finishing of seams. Also it might be worth noticing that possibly the "lussenvlechten" as described by Machteld in this post, also seems to have been used on clothing. Read about this here. }

The internet connection stil works, and I've got a few days off, so it's time for a post I promised a few weeks ago :-)

Finishing the seams of 14th/15th century pouches

The outward seams of (embroidered) textile pouches can be finished in at least two ways. One method is to cover the seams by tablet weaving. There are some examples of textile pouches finished with this technique in Dress accessories (Egan, G., Pritchard, F. (2002), Dress accessories. c.1150- c.1450, London: The Boydell Press). The side seams of the 14th century London textile pouches discussed in this book are covered with tablet weaving.

Another technique is that of “embroidered braids”. The technique is described by Frida Sorber (Ceulemans, 1988, in Dutch) and she calls it “lussenvlechten”. I haven't found an English translation yet, so I just call it “embroidered braids”, because that's what the technique is all about. Some authors present descriptions of pouches, and seem to try to describe this type of braided finishes. In his embroidery manual “A stitch out of time” Wymarc, for example, describes his observations of the finishing of the German14th century pouches in the Victoria & Albert as follows: “The seams of the bag are covered with a decorative stitch. The stitch is composed of alternating colors, red and what might have once been gilt. I cannot be sure how the stitch was done, but I have re-created it using two needles (one for each color) and threading each color up through the previous stitch and back down, in a kind of double running stitch.” (p 41) Schmedding (1978) describes the finishing of a Swiss 15th century purse as follows: “Alle Kanten sind mit Grünen Seidenzwirnen und Goldfäden (...) in einer Art Flechttechnik befestigt.” p 190

It seems to have been quite common technique in the European mainland in the 14th and 15th century. You can find examples of purses finished with embroidered braids in these books and/or musea:

the Netherlands , Maastricht St Servaas Cathedral
Staufer, A. (1991), Die mittelalterlichen Textilien von St. Servatius in Maastricht, Bern: Abegg-Stiftung Riggisberg
Belgium, Tongeren
Ceulemans, C. (1988), Tongeren. Basiliek O.L. Vrouwe Geboorte. I. Textiel van de vroege middeleeuwen tot het Concilie van Trente, Leuven: Peeters
Germany, e.g. in Victoria and Albert Museum
Wymarc, “A stitch out of time”
Switzerland, Zürich, Sweizerisches Landesmuseum
Schmedding, B. (1978), Mittelalterliche Textilien in Kirchen und Klöstern der Schweiz, Bern: Abegg-Stiftung
Schneider, J. (1975), Textilien. Catalog der Sammlung des Schweizerischen Landesmuseums Zürich, Zürich: Verlag Berichthaus

Some conclusions drawn from the literature discussed above and my own observations of purses in Maastricht and Zürich:
each seam is covered with a braid
use contrasting colours in silk or silk and gold thread
tassels are attached over the seams

This is how I apply the technique:

attach two loops of thread (A and B) to the inside of the pouch

attach loop A

attach loop A, finished

pull loop B through loop A and attach loop B

pull loop A through loop B and attach loop B

cover all sides

Wednesday, April 25, 2007


I probably won't be posting as much as I would like to, the next few weeks (months??).. My life is a bit chaotic at this moment:
- finishing the phd
- networking to find a new job
- moving to a new city and finding a house there
- ...
And my home internet connection will probably be cut off soon (hopefully not to soon!)

Anyway, I hope I will be able to keep in touch every now and then!

Sunday, April 22, 2007

A fretworked veil? The headdress of Catherine De Beauchamp

The following article was published (in Danish) in: Sturtewagen, Isis (2007), En kruset hoveddug; Catherine de Beauchamps hovedtøj. (A Frilled Veil; The Headwear of Catherine de Beauchamp) In: Peter Vemmning (ed.), Middelaldercentrets Nyhedsblad, vinteren 2006/07, pp. 20-21. Nykøbing: Middelaldercentret.

In May 2006 I was invited by Camilla Luise Dahl from the Middelaldercentret in Nykøbing, Denmark, to research the background to the quite remarkable veil worn by Catherine de Mortimer on her burial tomb. I have been supplied with detailed photos of the tomb by Catherina Oksen, an archaeologist connected to the Middelaldercentret.

Catherine Mortimer was born ca. 1314 in Wigmore, Herefordshire, England. When she was fourteen years of age she married Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick. Catherine died c. 1370. She was buried in a tomb, dated c. 1370-1375 in St. Mary's Chapel, Warwick, England, together with her husband. The tomb shows Catherine wearing a frilled veil, which consists of two elements: one twelve layered veil with a 'checker' or ‘honeycomb’ pattern and a single layered veil with small rounded pleats or frills on top (Fig. 1). The sides of the tomb are decorated with both male and female mourning figures of which the female figures also feature the ‘honeycomb’ veils. They consist of fewer layers (three to four) and are rendered more stylized and less realistic than Catherine’s veil.

Fig. 1
The face of Catherine De Beauchamp, countess of Warwick, enclosed in a frilled veil, featuring a fine lattice pattern, c. 1370-1375. Tomb of Catherine De Beauchamp, countess of Warwick, St. Mary's Church, Warwick. Photo: Catharina Oksen, by permission.

At least a dozen of other examples of this same type of headwear can be seen in contemporary artwork. The earliest known example of the honeycomb-pattern in headwear is dated to 1356. On the western north-portal of the Münster in Ulm, Germany, we can see Saint Mary wearing a veil consisting of three layers of fabric somehow attached onto each other. (Fig. 2)Other examples of this type of veil construction can be seen on sculptures in England, Flanders, Germany and Denmark.

Fig. 2
The Virgin Mary wearing a honeycomb veil consisting of three layers of fabric, 1356. The western north-portal of the Münster in Ulm, Germany. Photo: Isis Sturtewagen.
This type of frilled headwear, as discussed above, is often believed to be a mere stylisation, and was in reality no more than a pile of fluted fabric layers.
Several authors, on the other hand, interpret the honey-comb veil as being a sewn fretwork of layers of fabric. This technique is a method used during the 16th and 17th century for making frilled cuffs and collars. I have experimented with several methods to obtain the 'honeycomb' effect, as well as methods to achieve the single layered frilled veil Catherine wears on top of her fretwork veil.
Fretwork can be obtained by sewing several layers of fabric together at one edge in a certain manner. I first experimented with this technique by trying to reconstruct a sample of the veil as it can be seen on the western nord-portal of the Münster in Ulm. (Fig. 3)After that I did several samples of possible variations on the method described above, to achieve an effect similar to the one seen on the tomb of Catherine de Mortimer, and other sculptures showing veils of the same type. A sample of one of the experiments trying to reconstruct Catherine's veil can be seen in Fig. 4.

Fig. 3
Experimental sample of the veil of Saint Mary as seen on the western north-portal of the Münster in Ulm, Germany. Photo: Isis Sturtewagen.

Fig. 4
Sample (reconstruction) of a possible construction method for Catherine's frilled veil based on 16th century sewing techniques. Photo: Isis Sturtewagen.
A more detailed and thorough report of my research to this subject will be published in the book 'Trimmed with Frills: Crimped, frilled and ruffled edges in women's headwear in medieval and early modern times'.

Select bibliography
Dahl, Camilla Luise: Kruseler og Krusedug. Herolden, årg. 9, nr. 2, 2005(a), pp. 14-19.

Lehnart, Ulrich: Kleidung und Waffen der Spätgotik, teil II. 1370-1420. Karfunkel Verlag Wald-Michelbach, 2003.

Liebreich, Anne: Der Kruseler im 15. Jahrhundert. Zeitschrift für Historische Waffen- und Kostümkunde. 1. Band der neuen Folge, Jahrgang 1923 – 1925. Verlag von Walter de Gruyter & Co. Berlin, pp. 218 – 223.

Norris, Herbert: Costume and fashion. Vol. 2. Senlac to Bosworth 1066-1485. London: Dent, 1950.

Rady, Ottilie: Der Kruseler. Zeitschrift für Historische Waffen- und Kostümkunde. 1. bd, Neuen Folge, Hft. 5. Jahr. 1923-25. Verlag von Walter de Gruyter & Co. Berlin, p. 131-136.

Scott, Margaret: A Visual History of Costume: The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. B. T. Batsford Ltd. London, 1986.

Steenbuch, Lene: Et rekonstructionsforsoeg af det krusede lin, kruseler, In: Herolden, årg. 9, nr. 2, 2005, pp. 20-21.

Sunday, April 15, 2007

Whitework sampler

This is my first "sketch" for the Feldbach tablecloth. The creature on the right is outlined using stem stitch, and I think I like that better. Below is a picture of this part of the tablecloth, from das Stickereiwerk. Next, I'm going to try the "rectangular" border below. It is done in interlacing stitch/ orientalischer Flechtstich. Help, it looks difficult :-) I found a picture of a 14th century German whitework wallhanging with the exact same border, so maybe this type of border was quite common.

Another 14th century tablecloth

I found this picture on Gunvor's website:


It looks nice, with the fringe and all!

Wednesday, March 28, 2007

My first creature :-)

This is a "sketch" for the linen tablecloth. It's a fairy tale creature embroidered in linen and outlined in silk. The linen embroidery is done in "versetzter Gobelinstich" and the silk is a runing stitch. It's 14 x 10 cm, and I think that is more or less the size of the figures in the original tablecloth. This sketch is done in unbleached linen DMC floss and unbleached linen fabric, but I ordered off white linen for the final project, because I think that is more suitable. I posted some technical details here. I'm glad that this project finally seems to be going somewhere :-)

Tuesday, March 27, 2007

Deventer Burgerscap

As you may have noticed, in the frame on the right hand side on this page, there is a new link to the blogspot of my living history group Deventer Burgerscap: http://deventerburgerscap.blogspot.com

It is a blog authored by all members of Deventer Burgerscap where we will write about our projects and research, events, ... We will mainly write in Dutch, but some posts will also be in English.

Monday, March 26, 2007

Where do all the high quality embroidery shops go?

Maybe this is a bit off-topic, but I have to tell it anyway.

I just found out that one of my favourite embroidery/knitting etc shops in the Netherlands is closing! This means I can no longer buy my silk and linen in De Vlijt in Utrecht anymore... And my favourite (and as far as I know, the only one) Dutch quality embroidery webshop borduurbrink.nl is also closing. What is wrong with Dutch people? Why does it seem that the Dutch don't want to work with quality yarns?? Do I really have to buy my embroidery floss from webshops in Canada, the US, UK or Germany? That's ridiculous!

Anyway, if anyone knows some high quality embroidery shops in the Netherlands, please tell me!

Tuesday, March 20, 2007

Work in progress

Data gathering is almost finished now: I need two more weeks to administer some tests and then the most stressful part of my research will be over :-)

This is some of the embroidery I've been working on lately. I was so inspired by Racaire's and Laren's klosterstitch projects that I finally found the courage to start a large scale project myself: a late 14th century leinenstickerei/whitework tablecloth that I've been thinking about for ages. This is my first "sketch" to see how the stitches work and to find out whether I like it. Which, of course, I do, so when I have finished these two creatures, I'll start the design for the final project:

These are, for now, the last two purses I'm working on:

Wednesday, March 07, 2007

Dorsten 14th century meeting

In the weekend of the 17th and 18th of February, 'die drei Holländer' (Bertus, Laurens and me) went to a 14th century reenactors meeting in Dorsten (Germany). More photo's of the weekend can be seen here.
It was a lovely weekend, we met a lot of new people, the food was deliscious, the atmosphere was great.

I have been very busy with my studies recently, so I didn't have time before to write a short piece on this. I'm in the middle of working at an excavation in Antwerp, and am writing several papers for university (on late medieval pottery) and some articles on medieval headwear.

Sunday, February 11, 2007

Surcot - sorkoet

I wanted to show you some photo's of my new, but not yet completely finished surcote. It is made with dark brown high quality wool, pale silk taffeta for the tippets and the torso part of the lining, and linen for the lining of the skirt. It still needs to get two slits in front edged with the same silk taffeta, and a pink taffeta border on the edge of the skirt.

I lined the body part with silk to make it easier to put the surcote on, on top of the green dress I'm wearing underneath it (you can see the sleeves of it in the pictures).

I based the dress on an example (f. 62v) from a manuscript held in the Royal Library of Belgium, Brussels. The manuscript (MS. 9427), a breviary, was made in commission of Lodewijk van Male between 1360-1368.

Friday, February 09, 2007

A break

I decided I won't be posting till the 19th of march.. That's a lot of time, I know...

The next 6 weeks I have to gather the final data for my phd. This means I have to visit different schools, travel a lot, talk to a lot of people... I really like it, and at the same time, it's also quite stressful!

So, I will post about embroidered braids and linen embroidery in march or april (finally spring!!).

"See" you then!

Thursday, February 01, 2007

14th century drawstring purse

This is the first of 2 or 3 (?) purses I'm going to make for next season's medieval fairs. I forgot how much time it takes to finish a purse after the embroidery is done: embroidered braids, tassels, drawstrings... But I really like to combine different techniques, so maybe that's why I like purses so much.

Sunday, January 28, 2007

Frilled headwear seminar - Denmark

I just wanted to let you all know that here you can view some photo's of the seminar on frilled headwear held in the Middelaldercentret in Denmark last September.
--> These photo's have now been removed by the owner of the site.

Dom, Wetzlar (Germany), late 14th century
Here, here and here you can see some experiments done by Gina Barrett.
Here you can see a frilled veil made by Cailin. She is not a member of the Kruseler Research Group, but I like her reconstruction very much.

Here is one of my previous posts about my own research and experiments.
An official description of the Kruseler Project can be found here.

Saturday, January 27, 2007

silk gimp thread

This company seems to offer silk gimp thread:


Does anybody know their silk?

Friday, January 19, 2007

Textile at the Cloisters, New York

Sabine posted a lot of detailed pictures of embroidery/textile objects from the Cloisters, New York:


Very interesting!

Sunday, January 14, 2007

13th century- mid 14th century tassels

These are the tassels I made for Joris. I used Aurora fine 2 ply spun silk, and it is so much better for making tassels than Devere 1200 dernier filament silk! I did the yellow embroidery with Devere 1200 dernier silk, though, because it's more shiny. These tassels have a linen core, just as the tassels in the previous post.

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